What is paternity? Paternity means fatherhood. Paternity is established
when a paternity testing laboratory uses genetic testing methods / DNA test, to demonstrate to a
legal standard, that an alleged father is the biological father. Paternity
is disproved when these same methods and standards demonstrate that an
alleged father is not the biological father.
What is DNA testing? DNA testing refers to the process of examining an individual's DNA markers for
the purpose of genetic human identification and for determining the relationship between two people.
How accurate is DNA-Based paternity testing? The DNA profiling method is an extremely accurate genetic
testing method. It can absolutely determine if the man is not the biological
father and reliably exclude him. DNA profiling can establish that the
alleged father is the child's biological father with a probability of
paternity of 99% or higher. Each year many individual clients, child
support offices, attorneys, judges and physicians choose Genetic Profiles
as their source for information, guidance and testing services in order
to determine paternity.
Are the results admissible in court? Yes. The laboratory follows a strict chain-of-custody
procedure which allows for court/legal admissibility. If you are interested
in other types of DNA testing, please contact our Client Services Department
at 1 (800)551-7763 for information. Return to top
Is the Lab accredited? Are the results reliable? The DNA testing laboratory used by Genetic Profiles is accredited by the
American Association of Blood Banks(AABB)for the purpose of performing paternity (parentage) tests.
Your paternity test will be processed by highly skilled and trained laboratory technicians.
Every test is evaluated by a Ph.D. scientist with several years specializing in DNA genetic testing.
Are the paternity test results confidential? Yes, The DNA test results are strictly
confidential. They are released only to the adult persons who were tested
and, as requested, to their authorized agents (e.g. attorneys).
How does DNA paternity testing work? DNA analysis, which is a major advance in the field of paternity testing,
involves the direct examination of the genetic material that a child
inherited from its biological parents. DNA is located throughout the
human body and in the same identical form. Thus, DNA in blood is the
same as that in skin, cheek lining, muscle, bone, teeth and various other
tissues. The DNA a person has is fully established at conception and
remains totally constant throughout life. During the paternity testing
process, the genetic characteristics of the child are first compared
to those of its mother. Those characteristics in the child that cannot
be found in the mother have been inherited from the biological father.
If the tested man (alleged father) does not have the genetic characteristics
necessary to be the biological father of the child, he is excluded. If
the tested man's DNA does contain those genetic characteristics, then
the probability that this man is the true biological father is calculated
and reported by the laboratory. Return to top
What kinds of samples are needed for DNA testing? Genetic Profiles frequently uses a cheek swab collection
(buccal swab) since it is easy to obtain, completely non-invasive, painless, and
is just as accurate as blood samples. Almost any biological sample could be used since DNA is located everywhere
throughout the body in the same exact form. Return to top
Can hair samples be used for DNA paternity testing? Yes. However hair samples must have the root follicle
intact. For the follicle to remain intact, it generally requires the
hair to be pulled directly from the scalp. If this is your preferred
our client services department for additional information. Return to top
old does the child need to be for paternity determination? There is no age limit with DNA Profiling. Children who are just
a few days old can be tested using buccal swab sample collection. Newborns
are readily tested by collecting blood from the umbilical cord on the
day of birth. Under special circumstances, DNA paternity testing can
be performed on unborn children during pregnancy by using amniotic fluids
or CVS samples.
Can paternity testing be
done without a specimen from the mother? Yes, it is possible to perform DNA paternity testing by comparing DNA
profiles from only the child and an alleged father when the mother is
unavailable. However, Genetic Profiles strongly recommends that the mother
be included in the testing whenever possible. If the child is a minor,
it is absolutely required that the legal guardian provide consent for
the child to provide a sample and be tested. If the child is at least
18 years old this consent is not required. Motherless paternity testing
could require additional time to complete. Return to top
Who needs to be tested? For a paternity DNA test, the mother, the child and
the alleged father. We can accurately test for paternity without
the mother's sample but this requires additional analysis by our testing laboratory.
What if the two possible fathers are related? When possible, both men should be tested at the same
time. Relatives have similar DNA patterns, but the laboratory will always
perform enough tests to completely resolve the paternity issue. It
is important that you inform us of the situation when you order your
What if one of the parties lives in some other city, state, or country? Genetic Profiles can coordinate and accomplish a
sample collection in virtually any city in the United States and in
many foreign countries. Clients can provide specimens at one of
Genetic Profiles' many established paternity specimen collection sites
or the collection can be done at a medical center, hospital, clinic
or physician's office. Genetic Profiles coordinates the entire specimen
collection procedure. Once the specimen is collected and placed in the
Genetic Profiles kit, it is sent to our paternity laboratory in San
Diego, California by overnight courier, which maintains the chain of
custody of the specimens. The samples are united once they have all
arrived at our testing laboratory. Samples collected early can be stored
DNA for as long
as necessary until the last required sample is collected. Since the
parties involved may provide specimens at different times and/or different
each individual participating in the testing can be scheduled at their
convenience. Return to top
Where do I go to have my sample collected? Generally, you will be scheduled by Genetic Profiles
at a medical facility or laboratory in your area to have your sample
collected. The samples are safely shipped by overnight courier to our
paternity laboratory in San Diego, California.
How many paternity tests / DNA tests
has Genetic Profiles performed? Genetic Profiles has performed over 18,000 DNA tests.
The laboratory used is accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks(AABB)
for the purpose of performing paternity (parentage) tests. Your paternity
test will be processed by highly skilled and trained laboratory technicians.
Every test is evaluated
by a Ph.D. scientist with over 14 years specializing in DNA genetic
testing. Return to top
Who gets the test results? Typically, all adults over age 18 who are tested
are eligible to receive a copy of the test results. In addition, individuals
representing tested parties, such at attorneys, can receive a copy of
the report at the request of a test participant. Let Client Services
know if you have special requirements and we will work with you to meet
Can I get the test done before the baby is born? Yes, we do offer prenatal testing.
Prenatal testing is significantly more expensive and does involve medical risk. The mother must have an
obstetrical procedure (amniocentesis) in order to obtain a sample on the
fetus. Genetic Profiles will assist you with information and coordination. Return to top
Do I need a doctor's order to have a paternity test performed? No. A doctor's order is generally not required for you to have a paternity
test conducted. New York residents please note: New York State rules
and regulations allows a clinical laboratory to examine specimens only
at the request of a licensed physician or other persons
authorized by law to use the findings of laboratory examinations in
their practice or in the performance of their official duties. We can
assist you with this process. Please contact our Client Services team
for the latest information.
What forms of payment does
Genetic Profiles accept? Fees for testing are prepaid by money order cashier's
check, attorney's trust account check, MasterCard (debit or credit),
Visa (debit or credit), American Express or Discover card.
(No personal checks please.)
do I get an appointment? First, contact Genetic Profiles by calling toll-free
1 (800) 551-7763. A member of our Client Services department will assist
the testing process and setting up your appointment. At that time you
will be asked to provide the names, addresses and telephone numbers (if appropriate)
of the parties to be tested, as well as the age of the child. We can
also fax or mail you our brochure on paternity testing, our Paternity
Test Order Form, or any additional information you may want. You may also
access and print our
Mail In Form from this web site.